The Foundation framework provides a base layer of functionality for apps and frameworks, including data storage and persistence, text processing, date and time calculations, sorting and filtering, and networking.

Includes knowledge areas

Types of iOS app distribution

Apple provides three ways to distribute your application based on which developer program you are a member of: App Store or iTunes Store, In House, Ad Hoc

Application's states and transitions

Apple has defined 5 execution states of an iOS application (not running, inactive, active, background, suspended). Transition between these states are done by the OS by considering the user’s action.

Background mode, multitasking

Apps that need to run in the background to support specific types of tasks can declare their support for one or more background execution modes. Multitasking is a feature available on iOS that allows multiple applications to run and perform tasks at the same time.

Core Animation

Core Animation is a graphics rendering and animation infrastructure available on both iOS and OS X that is used to animate the views and other visual elements of the app.

Push Notifications services

Push notifications are used to push small amounts of data to devices that use the app, even when it isn’t running.


MapKit is a powerful API available on iOS devices that makes it easy to display maps, mark locations, enhance with custom data and even draw routes or other shapes on top.


Apple Wallet (Wallet for short, formerly Apple Passbook) is a mobile app included with the iOS operating system that allows users to store Wallet-passes.


Core Location provides services that determine a device’s geographic location, altitude, and orientation, or its position relative to a nearby iBeacon device.


Bluetooth wireless technology can be integrated in the apps and hardware accessories. With Core Bluetooth framework, it’s easy for an apps to interact with the growing number of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) devices.


AVFoundation is the full featured framework for working with time-based audiovisual media on iOS, macOS, watchOS and tvOS.

Sharing and social networks

iOS makes it easy to integrate social media interactions into the app, including sharing content and displaying an activity feed.


The Core Graphics framework is based on the Quartz advanced drawing engine. It provides low-level, lightweight 2D rendering with unmatched output fidelity.


Core Motion reports motion- and environment-related data from the onboard hardware of iOS devices, including from the accelerometers and gyroscopes, and from the pedometer, magnetometer, and barometer.


The SpriteKit framework makes it easy to create high-performance, battery-efficient 2D games.


GameKit enables players to interact with friends, compare leaderboard ranks, earn achievements, and participate in multiplayer games.


OpenGL ES creates 3D and 2D graphics effects with this compact, efficient subset of OpenGL.

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The rich text element allows you to create and format headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, images, and video all in one place instead of having to add and format them individually. Just double-click and easily create content.

Static and dynamic content editing

A rich text element can be used with static or dynamic content. For static content, just drop it into any page and begin editing. For dynamic content, add a rich text field to any collection and then connect a rich text element to that field in the settings panel. Voila!

How to customize formatting for each rich text

Headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, figures, images, and figure captions can all be styled after a class is added to the rich text element using the "When inside of" nested selector system.