Protocol - set of rules or procedures for transmitting data between two or more entities of a communications system.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file systems. (Render, parsing, optimization etc.)
Web hosting is the service that enables an individual or organization to publish a website on the Internet. Types of Web Hosting, Essential Web Hosting Features (Domain name registration, Speed, Storage, Bandwidth, Scalability, Uptime, Email Accounts, Support)
Website security is the act/practice of protecting websites from unauthorized access, use, modification, destruction, or disruption (important principles of modern web security, security best practices)
Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process used by the software industry to design, develop and test high quality softwares. The SDLC aims to produce a high-quality software that meets or exceeds customer expectations, reaches completion within times and cost estimates.
GraphQL is an open-source data query and manipulation language for APIs, and a runtime for fulfilling queries with existing data.
REST and SOAP are 2 different approaches to online data transmission. Specifically, both define how to build application programming interfaces (APIs), which allow data to be communicated between web applications.
functional programming is a programming paradigm where programs are constructed by applying and composing functions. It is a declarative programming paradigm in which function definitions are trees of expressions that map values to other values, rather than a sequence of imperative statements which update the running state of the program.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which can contain data and code: data in the form of fields (often known as attributes or properties), and code, in the form of procedures (often known as methods).
Architectural patterns that separates an applications into three main logical components Model, View, and Controller
Object Oriented Design. Software design pattern is a general, reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem within a given context in software design. It is not a finished design that can be transformed directly into source or machine code. Rather, it is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. Design patterns are formalized best practices that the programmer can use to solve common problems when designing an application or system.
Test-driven development (TDD) is a software development process relying on software requirements being converted to test cases before software is fully developed, and tracking all software development by repeatedly testing the software against all test cases. This is opposed to software being developed first and test cases created later.
RAIL stands for response, animation, idle and load. RAIL is a user-centric performance model that breaks down the user’s web experience into four key actions.
Measuring performance provides an important metric to help you asses the success of your app, site, or web service. For example, you can use performance metrics to determine how your app performs in comparison to a competitor or you can compare your app's performance across releases. The metrics you choose to measure should be relevant to your users, site, and business goals. They should be collected and measured in a consistent manner and analyzed in a format that can be consumed and understood by non-technical stakeholders.
Lighthouse is an open-source, automated tool for improving the quality of web pages. You can run it against any web page, public or requiring authentication. It has audits for performance, accessibility, progressive web apps, SEO and more.
Google Chrome’s DevTools (or similar solutions). Hot to find Performance Bottlenecks, analyze runtime performance.
A module is a piece of program that specifies which other pieces it relies on and which functionality it provides for other modules to use (its interface).
You can achieve results from performing asynchronous operations using the callback approach or by using promises. But there are some minor differences between the two.
A regular expression is a sequence of characters that forms a search pattern. When you search for data in a text, you can use this search pattern to describe what you are searching for. A regular expression can be a single character, or a more complicated pattern. Regular expressions can be used to perform all types of text search and text replace operations.
Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are constructs made available in programming languages to allow developers to create complex functionality more easily. They abstract more complex code away from you, providing some easier syntax to use in its place.
localStorage is a way to store data on the client’s computer. It allows the saving of key/value pairs in a web browser and it stores data with no expiration date. stores data only for a session, meaning that the data is stored until the browser (or tab) is closed. Stores data that has to be sent back to the server with subsequent XHR requests. Its expiration varies based on the type and the expiration duration can be set from either server-side or client-side.
JSON Web Token (JWT) is an easy way to secure an API. When a user authenticates first on a server, using for instance a standard login form, the server creates a token. This token includes some personal data, such as username or email address. Then, this token is signed server-side (to prevent token integrity), and sent back to the user. Within each next request, user sends the token to establish emitter identity.
Web Components are a collection of building blocks. Templates are where we define reusable code. Custom Elements allow us to define our own element. ShadowDOM provides a DOM encapsulation within DOM.
Lazy Loading is an approach through which you can prioritize content, delaying loads for less relevant or visible content. Consequently, your apps or websites load faster, delivering an enhanced user experience.
A design pattern is a term used in software engineering for a general, reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design.
Tags, content, attributes, elements etc.
Semantic HTML means writing HTML that is descriptive and meaningful in regards to content and context.
An HTML form is used to collect user input. Form validation is an feedback on the user's input and actions.
As for developers, it is important to make the code visually appealing and understandable to other developers and users. There are some basic norms that are good to follow to attain this consistency in website development.
Provide the user a good way to navigate and interact with your site.
The purpose of any website is to drive traffic. And a vast portion of those visitors is coming from search engines.
CSS Syntax, Selectors, CSS Typography, Division and Span, etc.
Responsive web design provides an optimal experience, easy reading and easy navigation with a minimum of resizing on different devices such as desktops, mobiles and tabs
Float is a CSS positioning property.
The position property can help you manipulate the location of an element.
The display property specifies the display behavior (the type of rendering box) of an element.
The box model is the ruleset a browser uses to determine an element’s size and how it interacts with other elements.
CSS Grid is a powerful tool that allows for two-dimensional layouts to be created on the web. The CSS Grid Layout Module offers a grid-based layout system, with rows and columns, making it easier to design web pages without having to use floats and positioning.
The Flexible Box Layout Module, makes it easier to design flexible responsive layout structure without using float or positioning.
A CSS framework is a library allowing for easier, more standards-compliant web design using the Cascading Style Sheets language. For example there are few of them, the most popular: Reactstrap, Material UI, Tailwind CSS, Chakra UI, Bootstrap, Materialize CSS, Bulma
CSS methodologies to structure and organize CSS
They generate locally scoped class names that are easy to reason about, without introducing complex conventions.
styled-jsx is a library to support CSS-in-JS. It was developed by Zeit for use in their awesome Next.js (React) apps.
Emotion is a performant and flexible CSS-in-JS library. Building on many other CSS-in-JS libraries, it allows you to style apps quickly with string or object styles. It has predictable composition to avoid specificity issues with CSS. With source maps and labels, Emotion has a great developer experience and great performance with heavy caching in production.
Radium is a set of tools to manage inline styles on React elements. It gives you powerful styling capabilities without CSS.
Glamorous is React component styling solved with an elegant (inspired) API, small footprint (<5kb gzipped), and great performance (via glamor).
Smoke Testing is a software testing process that determines whether the deployed software build is stable or not. End-to-end testing is a technique that tests the entire software product from beginning to end to ensure the application flow behaves as expected. The most popular examples: Smoke, Unit test, Black Box, Code Coverage, Selenium, Pupeteer.
Build tools can save you valuable time. They can do a lot of useful stuff: download libraries, run tests, bundle packages, automatize tasks, and so much more.
Code formatters and code linters used to have the same code format everywhere (like "tabs" and "spaces") and use the best code practices for good quality (like "let"/"const" rather than "var")
Package managers are tools that automatically handle the dependencies of a project.
There are several cloud providers that offer the necessary services to build and deploy an application. Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud Platform, Microsoft Azure, Heroku etc.
Continuous Integration (CI) is the practice of merging all developers' working copies to a shared mainline. Continuous Delivery (CD) is a software engineering approach in which teams produce software in short cycles, ensuring that the software can be reliably released at any time and, when releasing the software, doing so manually.
Version control, also known as source control, is the practice of tracking and managing changes to software code. Version control systems are software tools that help software teams manage changes to source code over time. Git (Git branching models), GitHub, GitLab, Bitbucket, Mercurial, SVN.
Micro-frontends is an architectural style for building web-based applications. Micro-frontends are taking the concept of micro-services to the frontend.
Serverless architecture (also known as serverless computing or function as a service, FaaS) is a software design pattern where applications are hosted by a third-party service, eliminating the need for server software and hardware management by the developer. Applications are broken up into individual functions that can be invoked and scaled individually.
A single-page application (SPA) is a web application or website that interacts with the user by dynamically rewriting the current web page with new data from the web server, instead of the default method of the browser loading entire new pages. The goal is faster transitions that make the website feel more like a native app.
A multi-page application (or an MPA) is a web application that consists of multiple web pages that are downloaded when a user visits different parts of the page.
A relational database is a type of database. It uses a structure that allows us to identify and access data in relation to another piece of data in the database. Often, data in a relational database is organized into tables.
Set of properties that a database transaction in a relational database is supposed to have (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability)
Database normalization is the process of structuring a database, usually a relational database, in accordance with a series of so-called normal forms in order to reduce data redundancy and improve data integrity.
A NoSQL (originally referring to "non-SQL" or "non-relational") database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases.
CAP theorem is also called brewer's theorem. It states that is impossible for a distributed data store to offer more than two out of three guarantees (Consistency, Availability, Partition Tolerance)
Object–relational mapping (ORM, O/RM, and O/R mapping tool) in computer science is a programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems using object-oriented programming languages. This creates, in effect, a "virtual object database" that can be used from within the programming language. Data migration is the process of selecting, preparing, extracting, and transforming data and permanently transferring it from one computer storage system to another.
React.js couldn't work alone, as it is only the View (V) and needs an engine for data processing. A developer needs to figure out its implementation, manage with Redux and Saga, and arrange that individually.
React code is made of entities called components. Components can be rendered to a particular element in the DOM using the React DOM library. When rendering a component, one can pass in values that are known as "props": Functional components are declared with a function that then returns some JSX. Class-based components are declared using ES6 classes.
Each component in React has a lifecycle which you can monitor and manipulate during its three main phases.
The Context API is a component structure provided by the React, Context provides a way to share values between components without having to explicitly pass a prop through every level of the tree.
Props are arguments passed into React components. Props are passed to components via HTML attributes. React components has a built-in state object. The state object is where you store property values that belongs to the component. When the state object changes, the component re-renders.
Hooks are the new feature introduced in the React 16.8 version. It allows you to use state and other React features without writing a class. Hooks are the functions which "hook into" React state and lifecycle features from function components. It does not work inside classes. Hooks are backward-compatible, which means it does not contain any breaking changes. Also, it does not replace your knowledge of React concepts.
Sometimes it might happen that a component hides itself even though another component rendered it. To do this (prevent a component from rendering), we will have to return null instead of its render output.
Handling events with React elements is similar to handling events on DOM elements, with a few minor exceptions.
Middleware generally refers to software services that "glue together" separate features in existing software. For Redux, middleware provides a third-party extension point between dispatching an action and handing the action off to the reducer: [ Action ] <-> [ Middleware ] <-> [ Dispatcher ]
Flux is the application architecture that Facebook uses for building client-side web applications. The major idea behind Flux is that there is a single-source of truth (the stores) and they can only be updated by triggering actions.
MobX is an open source state management tool.
The way how we define each of the routes in our application
A match object contains information about how a <Route path> matched the URL.
“Dynamic Routing” means that routing takes place as your app is rendering, not in a configuration or convention outside of a running app.
Navigation is a fundamental component of traditional applications and single-page applications (SPAs). Navigation refers to the ability to move from one page to another.
When the user clicks the button, your component renders a message in a div element. Your test should check practically for the same — check if the button is clickable and if this div exists after the clicking.
It will be a good topic to discuss some tools and techniques with an interviewer on the interview.
If you're using react v.16.8, then you probably use hooks and some of them could bu custom written ones yourself. It's nice to be confident that your hook continues to work over the lifetime of your application.
React 16.6 added a <Suspense> component that lets you “wait” for some code to load and declaratively specify a loading state (like a spinner) while we’re waiting.
The are several patherns, one of them is Render props. The Render props pattern is a way for us to create a component that provides some kind of data to a child component.
Higher Order Components (HOC) − Former React versions offered mixins for handling reusable functionalities. Since mixins are now deprecated, one of the solutions is to use HOC.